$14.10 - $14.82. [9] In a marked departure from the traditional ideas held by the elite about making Romania into the modernized and Westernized "France of Eastern Europe", the Legion demanded a return to the traditional Eastern Orthodox values of the past and glorified Romania's peasant culture and folk customs as the living embodiment of "Romanian genius."[9]. CATWALK by Tigi HAUTE IRON SPRAY 6 OZ 4.6 out of 5 stars 137. 40 … The Legion, in contrast, fully supported Antonescu's vision of an ultranationalst and authoritarian regime. We’ve received your inquiry. *Recommendation is based on moving 100,000 bu/year, Hutchinson Eclipse Tower-Catwalk Solutions. 463–479, from, Ancel, Jean "Antonescu and the Jews" pp. It is generally agreed that there was no such escape attempt, and that Codreanu and the others were killed on the king's orders, probably in reaction to the 24 November 1938 murder by legionnaires of a relative (some sources say a "friend") of Călinescu. 8 Ounce. Save more with Subscribe & Save . Călinescu favored a foreign policy where Romania would maintain a pro-Allied neutrality in World War II, and as such, the SS had a hand in organizing Călinescu's assassination. Helps to seal the cuticle and works to prevent future damage. [10], Romania had been a strongly Francophile country starting in 1859 when the United Principalities came into being, giving Romania effective independence from the Ottoman Empire (an event largely made possible by French diplomacy which pressured the Ottomans on behalf of the Romanians), and from that time onwards, most of the Romanian intelligentsia professed themselves believers in French ideas about the universal appeal of democracy, freedom and human rights, while at the same time holding antisemitic views about Romania's Jewish minority. Alexandru Florian, Indiana University Press, 2018. The Legion didn't want a physical superhuman like the Nazis did. Although Antonescu was an archnationalist and authoritarian, his first preference was to form a government of national unity, in which all parties would have accepted him as dictator. During the rebellion and pogrom, the Iron Guard killed 125 Jews, while 30 soldiers died in the confrontation with the rebels. [58], The Iron Guard symbol was also spotted at Highlander Research and Education Center in New Market, Tennessee when the building was burned deliberately. [12] The fact that many members of Romania's elite were often corrupt and that very little of the vast sums of money generated by Romania's oil found its way into the pockets of ordinary people, further enhanced the appeal of the Legion who denounced the entire elite as irredeemably corrupt. A month after the fall of France, Carol restructured his regime's single party, the National Renaissance Front, into the more overtly totalitarian "Party of the Nation," and invited a number of legionnaires to take part in the restructured government. [35] Part of the reason for the overwhelming male membership of the Iron Guard was that a disproportionate number of legionnaires were university students and very few women went to university in Romania during the inter-war period. [33], As for economics, there was no straightforward program, but the Legion generally promoted the idea of a communal or national economy, rejecting capitalism as overly materialistic.[32]. A lean toward the Axis powers was probably inevitable. With Codreanu as a charismatic leader, the Legion was known for skilful propaganda, including a very capable use of spectacle. [36] In the Romanian language there are plurals attached to most nouns that have either a masculine or feminine form. Waldeck, "Totul pentru Țară" is translated as "Everything for the Fatherland" in ", Ioanid, "The Sacralised Politics of the Romanian Iron Guard. [9] The Romanian-born Israeli historian Jean Ancel wrote from the mid-19th century onward, that Romanian intelligentsia had a "schizophrenic attitude towards the West and its values". However, with the exception of the Legion, the other parties at least wanted to maintain the appearance of parliamentary rule. Totok, William. In March 1930, Codreanu formed the "Iron Guard" ("Garda de Fier") as a paramilitary political branch of the Legion; this name eventually came to refer to the Legion itself. [34] A chapter of the Legion was called a cuib, or "nest," and was arranged around the virtues of discipline, work, silence, education, mutual aid, and honor. Unlimited FREE fast delivery, video streaming & more. [38] In strikingly sexualized language, the Iron Guards argued that most Romanian men had been "emasculated" and were suffering from "sterility", which one Iron Guard Alexandru Cantacuzino called the "plague of the present" in a 1937 essay. The main symbol used by the Iron Guard was a triple cross (a variant of the triple parted and fretted one), standing for prison bars (as a badge of martyrdom), and sometimes referred to as the "Archangel Michael Cross" ("Crucea Arhanghelului Mihail").

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